In Brief: What is Nano CBD
Nano CBD is a type of CBD encapsulated in a nanocarrier. Preliminary research shows that the bioavailability and absorption of CBD are increased using nano CBD. However, more research studies with accurate safety testing are required to examine the different nanocarriers, benefits, and associated risk factors are needed. These studies will decide on the future of nano CBD.
CBD (cannabidiol) is one of the phytocannabinoid found in cannabis plants without psychotropic activity.
It has physiological effects including, anti-inflammation, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, and relieving neuropathic pain.
CBD is highly lipophilic and has low bioavailability on oral administration and inhalation. One of the ways to improve the bioavailability of CBD is through nanotechnology.
In this article, the focus will be on nano CBD, its benefits, and constraints associated.
What is Nano CBD?
Nanotechnology has opened a new and advanced way of delivering CBD molecules. It may overcome issues with other modes of delivery.
Nano CBD is the CBD molecule that is broken into tiny nanoparticles and encapsulated using nanocarriers.
It is the newest way of increasing the absorption and bioavailability of CBD by slowly releasing the CBD in the targeted issues.
It can improve the physical stability of CBD, increase the uptake of CBD, enhance safety, and reach the target effectively.
It can be delivered orally, mixed with food, and applied topically.
Nanocarriers can be liposomes, nanoemulsions, nanostructured lipid carriers, or polymers.
Liposomes are one of the frequently used drug delivery systems. It is nanosized phospholipid structures that can pass along the smallest arterioles.
It is less commonly used to deliver CBD due to low encapsulation efficiency. Encapsulating highly lipophilic CBD into phospholipid bilayer is difficult.
Therefore, other nanocarriers are used to develop nano CBD.
Nanoemulsion is a promising method of improving the bioavailability of CBD. It is the process of breaking CBD into nanoparticles using ultrasonic liquid processors, which are coated with lipid carriers to keep them stable.
The size of the nanoparticles ranges from 10 to 1000 nm.
It is non-toxic, has a greater surface area, and is better than liposomes and vesicles.
PTL401, an oral CBD/THC nanoemulsion, showed improved absorption compared to oromucosal spray. It also had higher bioavailability, 131% for CBD.
The nanoemulsion of CBD containing vitamin E, ethanol, and Tween-20 as oil phase showed improved bioavailability.
Nanostructured lipid carriers are second-generation lipid-based nanocarriers employed to deliver CBD.
It consists of a matrix in which CBD nanoparticles are dispersed in an aqueous phase.
The matrix is a blend of biocompatible solid and liquid lipid materials that are solid at room temperature.
It exhibited enhanced drug loading capacity, inhibited drug expulsion, and can be administered by different routes.
It is a better carrier system for CBD than emulsions and liposomes, which makes use of fluid matrices.
A study showed that lipid nanoparticles incorporating CB-13, a cannabinoid drug showed therapeutic potential for reducing chronic pain.
Polymers, including PLGA, PEG, chitosan, PCL, may also be used to encapsulate cannabidiol and deliver the drugs. Cannabidiol loaded poly-ε-caprolactone had been used to study the antitumoral activity of CBD.
Benefits of Nano CBD
The bioavailability of CBD by oral administration was very low (13-19%), as it has to pass through the first-pass metabolism.
CBD administration by smoking has a bioavailability of 31%. Besides, CBD is highly lipophilic, decreasing its bioavailability.
To overcome this issue, the delivery of CBD through nanotechnology may be useful.
As it is delivered as tiny particles, nano CBD may easily be absorbed by the body more efficiently and speeds past the digestive processes increasing bioavailability.
As the bioavailability of CBD may be increased by using nano CBD, the consumers may use less quantity, and the effects may last longer.
It may enhance the targeting of CBD to specific target areas.
Therefore, nano CBD may have increased speed of delivery, enhanced bioavailability and activity compared to other modes of administration.
The research on nano CBD is still early, and therefore many safety assessments and clinical trials are warranted.
Limitations / risks
Nano CBD may contain unwanted chemicals, including propylene glycol, that may cause adverse side reactions.
Several studies showed that nanoparticles might cause oxidative stress, increase inflammation, and damage the tissue.
They may have instability during blood circulation and low renal clearance. 
Always look for good quality nano CBD as not all nano CBDs are efficient and free from contaminants.
As it is a new type of technology, there are not many products available in the market and maybe expensive.
Recent years have witnessed unprecedented growth in the areas of CBD products and nanotechnology.
Nano CBD is the CBD encapsulated in a nanocarrier. These CBD nanoparticles propose to deliver improved absorption and bioavailability of CBD molecules.
Although nano CBD shows promise, there is still a lot of clinical research and extensive testing needed to examine its efficacy.
It is hoped that future studies may increase our knowledge of nano CBD so that they could be used to treating chronic conditions.